This course will introduce embryological development as a major topic within medical sciences. Students completing this course will have a broad understanding of: human development, some animal models of development and current related research topics. It will enable students to explore and gain further understanding of embryology both early and systematic through the investigation of development in both humans and animal models. This course will enable students to broadly understand abnormalities in development and current applications to medical research. Within the Anatomy program it introduces the developmental origin of organs and tissues as a cornerstone for later study of topics such as Visceral or Functional Anatomy, Neuroanatomy, Cell Biology, Microscopy in Research.

In this course for PhD anatomy students, the major emphasis will be on the Prenatal human development and on correlation of normal development with development of common congenital malformations.

Furthermore, the structure and function of human body will be discussed in light of anatomical relationships and concepts and their functional significance

By the end of the course, the graduate of PhD Anatomy must have acquired a reasonable working knowledge of:

Cognitive domain:

1.     Acquire an understanding of the importance of human embryology and developmental anatomy to enhance student appreciation of normal body structure and function and correlate it to abnormal body structure and function

2.     Acquire familiarity with signalling occurring at a molecular level

3.     Genetic, molecular and cellular basis of the mechanisms that regulate those critical embryological events

4.     Acquire an awareness of the field of perinatology (the branch of medicine focused on the foetus and new-born infant) its approaches and tools (amniocentesis, fetoscopy, ultrasonography, molecular biology, etc


This course will comprise of Microscopic anatomy of human body; with emphasis on relationships between structure and function of tissues and organs. Also some fundamental techniques and instrumentation will be taught and learned along with emphasis on principles underlying preparation of material for histological, histo-chemical and ultra-structural examination and interpretation of results.

The study of anatomy is akin to the study of language. Literally thousands of new words will be taught throughout the course. Success in anatomy comes from knowing the terminology, the three-dimensional visualization of the structure(s) and using that knowledge in solving problems. The discipline of anatomy is usually studied in a dual approach: 

  • Regional approach - description of structures regionally and their relationships to each other (back, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, perineum, neck, head, upper limb, lower limb) 
  • Systemic approach - description of the major systems of the body – musculoskeletal, nervous cardiovascular, lymphatic, digestive, respiratory, endocrine, urinary and reproductive 

The gross anatomy course for upper limb is organized around a regional approach to anatomy, but time is taken throughout the course to review information from a systemic standpoint because true understanding requires that both approaches be used. 

Each lecture session of the syllabus begins with a list of “Objectives” that identifi es anatomic structures and concepts to be mastered. The goal of the objectives list is to help students focus study time on required content instead of guessing what the instructor expects them to memorize and learn. Similarly to learning a new language there is a large amount of memorization required. However, the end goal is not in memorizing long lists of terms and verbs but of communicating. Anatomy is much the same. There are long lists of structures and concepts to memorize and learn but that is not the end goal. The end goal is applying the anatomic content to clinical/analytical problems. 

The syllabus is meant to help serve as a guide in this study process. The syllabus and associated objectives are meant to serve as a focus to study time. In addition, homework exercises are provided to aid students in applying anatomic concepts in clinical situations to assess self-mastery of anatomic knowledge and to prepare for the end-unit examinations. the following list of objectives are general in nature and encompass the core ideology behind all the sessions.

Upon completion of course the students should be able to:

  1. Understand and interpret the gross structure of various parts of the upper and lower limbs

  2. Identify the bones, joints, muscles, nerves, viscera and blood vessels in cross sections of the limbs

  3. Apply the knowledge to solve clinical problems related to Anatomy

  4. Correlate the functional characteristics of different limb structures

  5. Discuss the recent advances in the relevant field