BIO 706: Macromolecules and Enzymology             2+0 Credit Hrs.

Course Objectives:

Students will be able to:

  1. Demonstrate the knowledge obtained regarding Structure and biological functions  of Protein
  2. Describe and draw primary to quaternary structures of Proteins.
  3. Understand the  chemical reactions of various amino acids
  4. Apply the knowledge obtained for Protein Sequencing
  1. Comprehend basic knowledge about the properties of enzymes and the relationship between their structure and mechanisms of catalytic action
  2. Know the most important representatives of individual classes, their use in practice and basic methods for the determination of enzyme activity
  3. Explain the specificity of enzymes (biochemical catalysts), and the chemistry involved in enzyme action
  4. Process data from kinetic studies and interpret the results in relation to the reaction mechanism

Course Contents:

Amino acids, Classification, General and Chemical Properties, Titration Curves and Acid-Base Properties. Separation, Peptides, their separation and Chemical reaction. Biologically active Peptides. Covalent Structure and Biological Function of Protein. Sequence Determination with special reference to Insulin, Corticotropin, Ribonuclease, and Hemoglobin.

Homologous Proteins and their Immune response, Different Levels of Protein Structure. Primary Structure; Secondary Structure: Fibrous Proteins: α- Keratin, β Keratin, Collagen and Elastin .Tertiary Structure: Globular Proteins; Myoglobin, Cytochrome C, Lysozyme and ribonuclease Quaternary Structure: Oligomeric Proteins Hemoglobin and Myoglobin. Protein folding conformation and posttranscriptional processing; Structure Function relationship; Protein structure evolution. X- Ray Analysis of peptides and Proteins. Perturbation of Protein conformation.(Pathological consequences). Myoglobin and Haemoglobin

The course will include, structure, classification, properties of enzymes, enzyme kinetics, factors affecting enzymes activity, enzyme inhibition, clinical and diagnostic importance of enzymes and co-enzymes, their functions and classification.

By the end of this course, the students will be able to

1. Define basic concepts in Enzymology.

2. Describe mechanism of actions of enzymes

3. Describe kinetics of enzymatic reactions. 

4. Extrapolate importance of enzymes in clinical practice.

5. Enlist enzyme inhibitors and their importance.

Course overview

Metabolic biochemistry course taught to M. Phil Biochemistry students at Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Khyber Medical Univeristy is divided into two first year courses: BMS – 719 and BMS – 720. These courses are designed to equip students with basic understanding of metabolic pathways and resulting diseases when normal metabolic processes are disrupted. BMS – 720 course more specifically focuses on biochemical pathways involved in metabolism of proteins, amino acids and nucleotides and diseases conditions resulting from abrogation of these metabolic pathways. The course consists of 10 blocks of lecture topics supplemented with self-assessment problem sets, questions/answers sessions and practice exams. Learning objectives, course materials and resources are provided online for each contact hour.

Learning outcomes

At the end of this course, the student will be able to

1.  Understand the basic concepts in Metabolism, Energy and Life.

2.  Differentiate between anabolic and catabolic pathways and their important enzymatic steps.

3. Extrapolate fundamental pathways involved in metabolism of proteins, amino acids and nucleotide.

4.   Extrapolate how these metabolic pathways are regulated during normal metabolic process.

5.   Make sense of how metabolic processes are disrupted during disease process.





This course covers the basic metabolic pathways for the metabolism of carbohydrates and how they are regulated in the body in various physiological and pathological states. 

By the end of this course, the students should be able to 

  • Outline bioenergetics involved in oxidation-reduction reactions
  • Discuss the role of ATP as a central molecule in metabolism
  • Explain different kinds of modifications in substrates during metabolism
  • Discuss Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, Electron transport chain, gluconeogenesis, Glycogenesis and glycogenolysis
  • Explain how these pathways are regulated in the body during different physiological states such as exercise and during common pathologies such as diabetes