This course will comprise of Microscopic anatomy of human body; with emphasis on relationships between structure and function of tissues and organs. Also some fundamental techniques and instrumentation will be taught and learned along with emphasis on principles underlying preparation of material for histological, histo-chemical and ultra-structural examination and interpretation of results.

This course will introduce embryological development as a major topic within medical sciences. Students completing this course will have a broad understanding of: human development, some animal models of development and current related research topics. It will enable students to explore and gain further understanding of embryology both early and systematic through the investigation of development in both humans and animal models. This course will enable students to broadly understand abnormalities in development and current applications to medical research. Within the Anatomy program it introduces the developmental origin of organs and tissues as a cornerstone for later study of topics such as Visceral or Functional Anatomy, Neuroanatomy, Cell Biology, Microscopy in Research.

The study of anatomy is akin to the study of language. Literally thousands of new words will be taught throughout the course. Success in anatomy comes from knowing the terminology, the three-dimensional visualization of the structure(s) and using that knowledge in solving problems. The discipline of anatomy is usually studied in a dual approach: 

  • Regional approach - description of structures regionally and their relationships to each other (back, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, perineum, neck, head, upper limb, lower limb) 
  • Systemic approach - description of the major systems of the body – musculoskeletal, nervous cardiovascular, lymphatic, digestive, respiratory, endocrine, urinary and reproductive 

The gross anatomy course for upper limb is organized around a regional approach to anatomy, but time is taken throughout the course to review information from a systemic standpoint because true understanding requires that both approaches be used. 

Upon completion of course the students should be able to:

  1. Understand and interpret the gross structure of various parts of the upper and lower limbs

  2. Identify the bones, joints, muscles, nerves, viscera and blood vessels in cross sections of the limbs

  3. Apply the knowledge to solve clinical problems related to Anatomy

  4. Correlate the functional characteristics of different limb structures

  5. Discuss the recent advances in the relevant field

The objectives of this course are to appreciate the biological nature of humans and to appreciate the biological variability of humans. Our evolutionary origins are discussed as well as the place of humans in nature. Students will learn skills in anthropometric examination and in skeletal identification for forensic and archaeological purposes. Aspects of Biological Anthropology such as dental anthropology and paleopathology will also be presented. Students will be required to complete a research project and actively participate in seminars and discussion sessions. Lecture topics include: the place of humans in nature, hominid evolution and its mechanisms, recent human evolution and human evolutionary future, modern human biological variation, primatology, human population dynamics and ecology, human physical growth and development, osteology and forensic applications of anthropology

By the end of the course, the graduate of MPhil Anatomy must have acquired a reasonable working knowledge of:

1.1      Cognitive domain:

1.    The fundamental components of the human viscera

2.    The gross structure of various viscera of the human body

3.    The viscera in cross sections

4.    Neurovascular supply of human viscera

5.    Anatomical aspects of human body cavities

6.    Functional anatomy of the various viscera of the human body

7.    Organization of the parietal and visceral peritoneum, its lesser and greater sacs, mesenteries and peritoneal ligaments

8.    The different regions, anatomical landmarks and regions of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis                                  

9.    To solve clinical problems related to Anatomy of human viscerae

1.2      Affective Domain:

1.    Manage time and courses to submit assignments on time

2.    Apply principles of professional conduct in paper submission (plagiarism)

3.    Demonstrate professional behavior by completing all course requirements, including course evaluations, in a timely manner.

4.    Demonstrate responsibility and accountability by attending and being punctual at all required course activities such as laboratory sessions, workshops and exams.

5.    Demonstrate professional behavior by requesting any excused absence from required course activities well ahead of the scheduled date.

6.    Demonstrate professional behavior by responding to direct communication from the course faculty in a timely fashion, particularly in circumstances when a face-to face meeting is requested to discuss issues related to academic performance.

7.    Demonstrate professional and ethical behavior by honestly completing course examinations without attempting to seek an advantage by unfair means; and by reporting any unethical behavior of peers to the course administration.

1.3      Research:

1.    Critically analyse research articles and develop a literature review.

2.    Discuss the research based recent advances in the relevant field.

3.    Learn to interpret the findings in the medical literature for future research

4.    Improve critical appraisal skills and conduct it effectively